Pigmentation on the skin refers to the colour of the skin, which is determined by the presence of a pigment called melanin. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes, which are located in the epidermis (outer layer) of the skin.


Melanin helps protect the skin from the harmful effects of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays by absorbing the UV radiation and preventing it from penetrating deeper into the skin. When the skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes produce more melanin, which causes the skin to darken or tan.


However, sometimes melanin production can become irregular, leading to various forms of pigmentation disorders such as hyperpigmentation (darkening of the skin) or hypopigmentation (lightening of the skin). These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, sun exposure, hormonal changes, and certain medical conditions.


Other Factors To Consider


Hormonal changes: Hormonal changes, such as those that occur during pregnancy or with the use of birth control pills, can cause an increase in melanin production, leading to hyperpigmentation.


Inflammation: Inflammatory skin conditions, such as eczema and acne, can cause hyperpigmentation due to the production of excess melanin in response to inflammation.


Skin trauma: Any kind of injury to the skin, such as a cut or burn, can lead to hyperpigmentation as the skin heals.

Medications: Certain medications, such as some antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs, can cause hyperpigmentation as a side effect.


Age: As we age, our skin becomes thinner and loses collagen, which can make pigmentation more noticeable.



It’s important to identify the underlying cause of pigmentation and hyperpigmentation in order to develop an effective treatment plan.